Institutional asset owners` associations and think-tanks also observed that the stated objectives of the Paris Agreement were implicitly based on the assumption that UN member states, including major polluters such as China, the United States, India, Russia, Japan, Germany, South Korea, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Canada, Indonesia and Mexico , which produce more than half of the world`s greenhouse gas emissions, produce more than half of the world`s greenhouse gas emissions. , willfully and stubbornly reduce their carbon pollution without a binding mechanism to control CO2 emissions at all levels from one plant to another and without specific penalties or tax pressure (. B, for example, a CO2 tax), to avoid misbehaviour.  However, emissions taxes (for example. B a CO2 tax) can be integrated into the country`s NDCs. The government has worked to actively censor climate science in its own agencies and has set up a climate change review body that challenges the results of the country`s national climate assessment. The head of this body is a climate change denier, who said that “the demonization of carbon dioxide is exactly like the demonization of poor Jews under Hitler.” The EU and its member states are among the nearly 190 parties to the Paris Agreement. The EU formally ratified the agreement on 5 October 2016, allowing it to enter into force on 4 November 2016. In order for the agreement to enter into force, at least 55 countries representing at least 55% of global emissions had to file their ratification instruments. Adaptation issues were at the forefront of the paris agreement. Collective long-term adaptation objectives are included in the agreement and countries must be accountable for their adaptation measures, making adaptation a parallel element of the mitigation agreement.
 Adaptation objectives focus on improving adaptive capacity, resilience and vulnerability limitation.  Although mitigation and adjustment require increased climate funding, adjustment has generally received less support and has mobilized less private sector action.  A 2014 OECD report showed that in 2014, only 16% of the world`s financial resources were devoted to adaptation to climate change.  The Paris Agreement called for a balance between climate finance between adaptation and mitigation, highlighting in particular the need to strengthen support for adaptation from the parties most affected by climate change, including least developed countries and small island developing states. The agreement also reminds the parties of the importance of public subsidies, as adjustment measures receive less public sector investment.  John Kerry, as Secretary of State, announced that the United States would double its grant-based adjustment funding by 2020.  At least a 40% reduction in greenhouse gases by 2030 compared to 1990, including the use of EU emission credits. This is INDC. The objective of the agreement is to reduce global warming as described in Article 2 and to improve the implementation of the UNFCCC through paragraphs 6.2 and 6.3, in order to establish a framework for the international transfer of mitigation results (ITMOs).
The agreement recognizes the right of contracting parties to use emission reductions outside their jurisdiction vis-à-vis their NDCs in a carbon accounting and exchange system.  At the 2011 UN Climate Change Conference, the Durban Platform (and the ad hoc working group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action) were created to negotiate a legal instrument for climate action from 2020.